Total Cholesterol

What Is Total Cholesterol?

Despite its bad press, cholesterol is essential for sustaining life. Cholesterol helps to form the membranes of cells which make up our organs and body tissues. It also helps to make hormones and bile acids. The body can produce its own cholesterol in the liver, but we also acquire it from our diet. Cholesterol can be split into good (HDL) and bad (LDL). Total cholesterol measures all cholesterol, both good and bad to see if either is circulating in high or low amounts.[1]

Which tests include this marker?

What Role/s Does It Play in The Body?

Cholesterol has an essential role in cellular membrane physiology, the absorption of nutrients from the diet, the metabolism of calcium, sexual reproduction as well as the salt and water balance within the body.

Cell membrane physiology
Cholesterol helps to make up the membrane of cells. The cholesterol helps to maintain healthy cells and in turn a healthy body – if it is kept in balance. An imbalance has been identified in diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer’s Disease.  The function of a cell membrane is to keep the inside of a cell separate from the outside. Cholesterol helps to keep the membrane rigid and modulates the thickness and fluidity of the membrane.[2]

Bile Salts and Hormones
Bile salts are the major constituent of bile – a fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder to emulsify fats. Cholesterol is converted to cholyl CoA which is an activated intermediate required to produce bile salts. Cholesterol is also a precursor for steroid hormones including sex hormones.[3] 

HDL AND LDL
The body’s supply of cholesterol is made in the liver but can also be ingested from food sources such as meat, eggs and dairy products. Cholesterol is carried around the body by lipoproteins, namely high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The lower the density of the lipoprotein, the more amount of fat present within it. Therefore, LDL contains a high amount of fat. LDL’s principal role is to transport the cholesterol made in the liver to the tissues in the body where it can be used up. However, high plasma cholesterol levels mean it accumulates within the blood vessels.[4]

HDL, on the other hand, has protective effects on the heart and blood vessels. It works like a scavenger by transporting excess cholesterol from the arteries to the liver. HDL is, therefore, a good biomarker for predicting cardiovascular risk.[5]

Total cholesterol takes a measurement of the total HDL, LDL and triglycerides present in the blood. Triglycerides are a form of fat which forms part of the diet. They are mostly found in meat, dairy and cooking oils. The liver can make triglycerides. Wherever they come from, triglycerides have 2 functions: 

  • Used to make energy by cells
  • Stored as fat[6]

How Does Total Cholesterol Affect My Wellbeing?

High levels of LDL can increase the risk of heart disease or diabetes. The build-up of cholesterol on artery walls can lead to the restriction of blood flow to vital organs such as your heart and brain. The higher your cholesterol level gets the greater risk you are at developing coronary heart disease and angina, symptoms include:

  • Angina (chest pain)
  • Heart attack
  • Heart failure

Higher cholesterol also puts you at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This is where the body does not produce enough insulin, or the cells are unable to react to the insulin it does produce and so causes high blood glucose levels. Some of the symptoms associated with diabetes include:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Needing to pee more often
  • Weight loss
  • Blurred vision
  • Itching around the genital area
  • Slow healing of cuts[7] 

How Can I Improve My Result?

A healthy lifestyle is a good way to keep your cholesterol levels under control. Exercise is a good way to increase your HDL levels. Giving up smoking, increasing your unsaturated fat intake and lowering your alcohol consumption are all beneficial to improving your HDL and lowering your LDL levels.


Diet

The Mediterranean Diet has been shown to be effective in preventing type 2 diabetes and keeping cholesterol levels low. The diet is characterised by a high intake of fruit, vegetables, nuts, olive oil and grains as well as a moderate consumption of fish and wine. The Mediterranean Diet promotes a low intake of processed and red meat as well as whole-fat dairy products such as milk and cheese.

For good cholesterol levels, these simple points can help:

  • Avoid saturated fats like those found in butter, lard, meat products and full-fat dairy products
  • Use olive oil, rapeseed, sunflower or corn oil instead
  • Make starchy foods like bread, pasta, rice, potatoes or noodle the basis of meals, swapping for wholegrain varieties where you can
  • Porridge contains soluble fibre which can reduce cholesterol levels – try it for breakfast better to make with water than milk
  • Eat at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day
  • Swap full-fat dairy products for low-fat equivalents
  • Swap sugary snacks for a handful of nuts[8]

Exercise

Exercise is key to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels. You should exercise for at least 30 minutes per day, 5 times weekly to maintain a healthy lifestyle and reduce cholesterol levels.[9]

Aerobic exercise is particularly beneficial for heart health. It increases your heart and breathing rate gently and leaves you feeling warmer but you shouldn’t be gasping for breath. Activities include:

  • Walking
  • Jogging
  • Cycling
  • Swimming
  • Dancing

Using gym equipment like the treadmill, exercise bike, hill climber, rowing.

Tests that include this marker

Cholesterol Check

Track your levels of good and bad fat. Great for those embarking on a weight loss programme or for those who need to monitor high levels.

£39

Baseline

Tracking

Track & learn how to improve 16 of the most essential health markers that play a vital role in your wellbeing.

£59£49
Special offer - Save £10
per test

Baseline Plus

Tracking

Measure & track 20 key biomarkers including energy, fat, sugar, stress, inflammation and bone health.

£79 per test

Nutri-check

Is your diet supplying you with all the micronutrients your body needs? This nutrition test will identify any deficiencies.

£79

Menopause Health

For women in various stages of the menopause who want to check hormone levels as well as the impact changes may be having on their overall wellbeing.

£89

Body Fit

For those who enjoy keeping fit and want to optimise performance and check the impact their training is having on their health.

£89

Vitality

With over 40 biomarkers, this health check empowers you to understand much more about your health on the inside.

£139

Ultimate

Our most advanced health check which analyses almost 50 biomarkers. For those who want a deep understanding of their health.

£349

References

[1] Lab Tests Online UK. (2015). Cholesterol Test. Available at: https://labtestsonline.org.uk/tests/cholesterol-test

[2] Grouleff, J., Irudayam, S, J., Skeby, K, K and SchiØtt, B. (2015). The Influence of Cholesterol on Membrane Protein Structure, Function, and Dynamics Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Biomembranes: 1848(9), pp 1783-1795.

[3] Berg J, M., Tymoczko J., L, Stryer, L. (2002). Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman. Section 26.4, Important Derivatives of Cholesterol Include Bile Salts and Steroid Hormones. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22339/

[4] Heart UK. (2018). Cholesterol and Lipoproteins. Available at: https://heartuk.org.uk/images/uploads/healthylivingpdfs/HUKcfs_A_Cholesterol_and_Lipoproteins.pdf

[5] Rader, D, J and Hovingh, G, K. (2014). HDL and Cardiovascular Disease. The Lancet: 384, pp 618-625

[6] Heart UK. (2018). Triglycerides. Available at: https://heartuk.org.uk/health-and-high-cholesterol/triglycerides

[7] National Health Service. (2016). Diabetes. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/diabetes/

[8] Heart UK. (2018). For Good Cholesterol Levels. Available at: https://heartuk.org.uk/files/uploads/documents/huk_fs_d02_forgoodcholesterollevels.pdf

[9] Mann, S., Beedie, C and Jimenez, A. (2013). Differential Effects of Aerobic Exercise, Resistance Training and Combined Exercise Modalities on Cholesterol and the Lipid Profile: Review, Synthesis and Recommendations. Sports Med: 44, pp 211-221.

[10] Heart UK. (2018). Physical Activity. Available at: https://heartuk.org.uk/files/uploads/documents/huk_fs_mfsB_physicalactivity.pdf


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